Guías Docentes Electrónicas
1. General information
Course:
WORLD REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY
Code:
44761
Type:
CORE COURSE
ECTS credits:
6
Degree:
381 - UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMME IN HUMANITIES: CULTURAL HISTORY
Academic year:
2021-22
Center:
11 - FACULTY OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES OF CUENCA
Group(s):
30 
Year:
3
Duration:
C2
Main language:
Spanish
Second language:
English
Use of additional languages:
English Friendly:
Y
Web site:
Bilingual:
N
Lecturer: CARMEN VAZQUEZ VARELA - Group(s): 30 
Building/Office
Department
Phone number
Email
Office hours
Edificio Gil de Albornoz. Despacho 5.05
GEOGRAFÍA Y ORD. TERRITORIO
4317
carmen.vazquez@uclm.es

2. Pre-Requisites

If possible, have studied and passed the subject of Geography (Basic Formation).

3. Justification in the curriculum, relation to other subjects and to the profession

This subject, which is integrated into Module IV of the Degree and is taught in the 3rd year, allows students to analyse the organisation and dynamism of regional spaces, on a world scale and in Spain, with an integrated vision in which the different ecological, social, historical and economic-cultural components are interrelated. It is intended to be the explanatory basis for understanding the organisation of territories, taking into account the interdependence between the different spatial scales, since local phenomena are affected by structural processes of great importance in the face of growing globalisation, although with different responses depending on the specific conditions of each region.

The subject is tied to the area of knowledge of Regional Geographic Analysis and is closely related to the mention of Studies of Letters. This course aims to provide Humanities students: Cultural History with knowledge and skills that allow them to undertake a professional career oriented towards teaching, at all levels, and basic and applied research, including Geographical Information Technologies, all without prejudice to the possibilities of job opportunities in jobs that require analysis, diagnosis and intervention on the territory at different territorial scales.In this context, graduates with geographical training have found in recent years a demand for jobs, presenting themselves as an important source of employment (Territorial Planning, inventory and management of heritage resources, local Agendas 21, Local Development Agencies, Tourist Guides, etc.).

The contents of the subject Regional Geography are distributed in three didactic units. The first, The World Space, presents the fundamentals of Regional Geography, the general aspects of the regional division of the world and the major regional socio-economic imbalances.In the second and third didactic unit, Big Regional Groupings, a presentation of the great regional spaces of the world is made by means of a general vision of the features and processes that characterize them and by means of a detailed analysis of relevant aspects in each regional grouping separating the developed territories from the underdeveloped ones.

 


4. Degree competences achieved in this course
Course competences
Code Description
E03 Analysing and interpret data from research, reports and works inherent to the different disciplines of the field of study (Anthropology, Art, History, Geography, Philosophy, Language, Literature and Cultural Heritage)
E04 Understanding and using different sources of information: oral, source documents (bibliographies, records, etc.) and references from the Internet.
E06 Combining the temporal and spatial dimensions of the explanation of socio-territorial processes.
E09 Drafting different types of texts in his/her own language (both specialised and informative)
E10 Preparing, linking, summarising and representing information using graphs and maps.
E12 Discovering, identifying and interpreting the symbolic meaning of tangible culture and landscapes.
E19 Describing and interpreting rural environments and urbans systems and their correlations
E20 Analysing and interpreting comprehensively the elements and structure and how does the natural system work, as well as the regional geographical spaces.
E21 Knowing, understanding and interpreting the territory, interrelating the physical and environmental environment to the social and human sphere.
E22 Valuing the importance of the heritage resources maintained as an evidence of safeguarded memories.
E23 Knowing, analysing and comparing international, European, national and regional laws and regulations related to Heritage, Cultural Assets and Territorial Planning.
E27 Advanced use and management of information technologies.
G02 Knowledge of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
G03 Expressing correctly in oral and written forms in his/her own language
G04 Ethical commitment and professional ethics
G05 Analysis and synthesis capacity
G06 Making assumptions to solve issued in his/her field of study
G07 Applying critical, analytical and creative thinking and proving innovative capacities
G08 Ability to work independently within a framework of individual responsibility
G09 Ability to work collaboratively with shared responsibility regarding the group's tasks
G11 Communicating ideas, problems and solutions in public or in technical contexts efficiently
G13 Sensitiveness to multiculturalism and gender-related issues
G15 Committing to the defence of human rights
G16 Understanding cultural heritage from a critical, multicultural and universalist perspective
G17 Sensitiveness to environmental issues
5. Objectives or Learning Outcomes
Course learning outcomes
Description
Understanding fundamental concepts related to the regional, economic and environmental characteristics of the territories analysed.
Understanding concepts, methods and techniques related to graphical and mapping representations.
Knowing the territory directly and drafting a written reflection on the interrelations of the different geographical phenomena analysed.
Knowing the geographical reality of the world, Europe and Spain.
Preparing and producing geographical information in a statistical and graphical format.
Arguing and/or defending opinions based on reading and analysing the documents supplied.
Analysing, arguing and organising a presentation, combining summary and explanatory development.
Communicating, using all personal resources and those of new technologies applied to teaching.
Additional outcomes
Description
- To know how to analyse, argue and organise an exhibition, combining synthesis and explanatory development.
- To know how to communicate, using personal resources and new technologies applied to teaching.
- To be able to make critical comments and comparative analysis of texts and materials that show the understanding of fundamental concepts related to regional characteristics, the economic and environmental impacts of the territories under study.
- Elaboration of reports and works that demonstrate the knowledge of the world, European and Spanish geographical reality.
- Management of concepts, methods and techniques related to graphic and cartographic representation.
- Argumentation and/or defence of opinions established from the reading and analysis of the documentation provided.
- Elaboration and production of geographic information in statistical and graphical format.
- To acquire a direct knowledge of the territory that allows to develop written reflections on the interrelations of the different observed geographic phenomena.
6. Units / Contents
  • Unit 1: CONCEPTS, OBJECTIVES, METHODS, AND SCALES OF TERRITORIAL ANALYSIS
    • Unit 1.1: The concept of region: concepts, objectives and contents (political region, natural region, geographical region, functional region and systemic region; other recent meanings of region). Scales and hierarchies. Regional analysis methods and techniques. The assemblies and the criteria for delimitation: uniqueness and geographical characteristics. The Interest of the Regional Geography of the World in a globalized world.
    • Unit 1.2: The explanation of inequalities: the concepts and theories of development and underdevelopment. Regional analysis of the areas developed and underdeveloped: general criteria and presentation of the most relevant problems. Development indicators: the measure of the inequalities. Global imbalances: demographic contrasts and regional socio-economic disparities.
  • Unit 2: DEVELOPED REGIONS
    • Unit 2.1: Europe, a mosaic of regional diversity in the process of political-economic integration within the old continental boundaries
    • Unit 2.2: Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
    • Unit 2.3: Japan. The Japanese archipelago: a small, inhospitable and resource-poor area. Economic growth and its impact in the organization of the territory. High demographic concentration. The counterparts of the Japanese development model.
    • Unit 2.4: United States and Canada. Natural conditions as a basis for economic development. The colonization process: forms of land ownership and their spatial impact. The economic space of the world's leading economic power.
    • Unit 2.5: Australia and New Zealand. British colonization and the genesis of the new states. The decisive role of conditions natural: disadvantages and advantages. Economic activity and organization of the productive space. Characteristics of the population and model of settlements.
  • Unit 3: UNDERDEVELOPED REGIONS
    • Unit 3.1: Latin America. The natural environment: a space of great physical contrasts. The colonizing model of the Iberian powers: peculiarities and consequences. A society characterized by social imbalances. Urban expansion and increasing marginalization.
    • Unit 3.2: China: one country, two systems, one world economic power in full transformation.
    • Unit 3.3: South Asia and the new industrial countries of Southeast Asia. Introduction: features of unity and diversity. The the most complex society in the most populous region on Earth.
    • Unit 3.4: Near and Middle East Asia and North Africa. A natural environment marked by aridity. The selective occupation of a hostile environment: the impact of modernization on a society with traditional features. The difficulties of rural areas: between tradition and the development. A recent and accelerated industrialization linked to oil.
    • Unit 3.5: Sub-Saharan Africa, natural, human and economic contrasts in the most underdeveloped space.
ADDITIONAL COMMENTS, REMARKS

ABOUT THE ENGLISH FRIENDLY CHARACTER OF THE SUBJECT:
In accordance with the English Friendly nature of the subject, and in order to facilitate its monitoring by non-Spanish students, bibliographical references will be provided in English to facilitate the preparation of the subjects. Likewise, an outline will be provided in English by means of a power point presentation of the content of each topic.


7. Activities, Units/Modules and Methodology
Training Activity Methodology Related Competences ECTS Hours As Com Description
Class Attendance (theory) [ON-SITE] Lectures E20 E21 1.2 30 N N
Workshops or seminars [ON-SITE] Case Studies G08 G09 G11 0.24 6 Y N During the semester there will be three seminars linked to different topics of the subject. Previously, students will be given a dossier of materials and readings that they will have to read and analyze for later discussion and debate in the classroom.
Group tutoring sessions [ON-SITE] Guided or supervised work G09 0.6 15 Y N Mainly linked to the follow-up of the group project of the subject on a region not explained nor analyzed during the master classes or the workshops/seminars planned.
Class Attendance (practical) [ON-SITE] Practical or hands-on activities G08 G09 0.28 7 Y N Reading, interpretation, commentary and analysis of texts, figures and maps relating to different regions of the planet.
Writing of reports or projects [OFF-SITE] Self-study E03 E04 E06 E09 E10 E12 E19 E20 E21 E22 E23 E27 G02 G03 G04 G05 G06 G07 G08 G09 G11 G13 G15 G16 G17 1.6 40 Y Y The students, either individually or in a group, will elaborate a project about a region, from a work scheme facilitated at the beginning of the course. On the scheduled dates, the student/s will deliver a digital copy of the finished work and will make a synthetic presentation in class of the main results of the same.
Final test [ON-SITE] Assessment tests E03 E04 E06 E09 E10 E19 E20 E21 E22 0.08 2 Y Y It will only be considered strictly compulsory for students who do not follow up in continuous evaluation procedure.
Scientific paper reading and review [OFF-SITE] Guided or supervised work G07 G08 0.6 15 Y Y Students will be provided at the beginning of the course with a list of readings to choose from, from which two reviews of the selected titles will be drawn up. This content can be included in the written final examination for those students who do not follow the continuous assessment method.
Study and Exam Preparation [OFF-SITE] Self-study G03 G04 G05 G06 G07 1.4 35 Y Y
Total: 6 150
Total credits of in-class work: 2.4 Total class time hours: 60
Total credits of out of class work: 3.6 Total hours of out of class work: 90

As: Assessable training activity
Com: Training activity of compulsory overcoming (It will be essential to overcome both continuous and non-continuous assessment).

8. Evaluation criteria and Grading System
Evaluation System Continuous assessment Non-continuous evaluation * Description
Theoretical papers assessment 45.00% 40.00% Elaboration and exhibition in class of a project on a region selected by the students from a work script contributed by the teacher at the beginning of the course and adapted to the peculiarities of each region.
Portfolio assessment 40.00% 0.00% It will be valued the delivery of all the practices carried out in class, as well as the two reviews elaborated from the readings previously selected.
Assessment of active participation 15.00% 0.00% Participation with success in class, i.e. participation in argued and reasoned discussions and debates, especially during the development of seminars and practices, which contribute to fostering the critical capacity of the materials exhibited and to demonstrating the level of knowledge acquired, will be valued.
Final test 0.00% 60.00% It will only be considered strictly compulsory for students who do not follow up in continuous evaluation procedure.
Total: 100.00% 100.00%  
According to art. 6 of the UCLM Student Evaluation Regulations, it must be provided to students who cannot regularly attend face-to-face training activities the passing of the subject, having the right (art. 13.2) to be globally graded, in 2 annual calls per subject , an ordinary and an extraordinary one (evaluating 100% of the competences).

Evaluation criteria for the final exam:
  • Continuous assessment:
    In the ordinary call for examinations, knowledge about the contents of the syllabus previously NOT evaluated through works and projects will be evaluated.
    Under no circumstances will the exam be considered as a memorial exercise but as a test of maturity and critical capacity on a subject, text and/or graphic or cartographic material. The foreign students participating in the English Friendly program, will be able to do in Spanish or English, at their choice, the oral and written presentation of the above mentioned practices and tests.
    A score of less than 4 in the final written test will mean that the student must be recovered in the extraordinary call.
    The COMPILATIO software acquired by the UCLM allows the detection of licit intertextuality, plagiarism (copied without citing source) taken from the Internet and copying among students. As a general rule, from 40% of similarity will result in the failure of the course, and from 65% of similarity will result in the proposal of a major sanction. The penalty, however, is the responsibility of the teacher, who will weigh the severity according to other didactic factors.
  • Non-continuous evaluation:
    The evaluations above are for continuous evaluation. For the alternative to it, the weight in the final grade will be the same for the theoretical work (40%) and 60% for the final test.

Specifications for the resit/retake exam:
Consideration of the full syllabus, except in exceptional cases where the work done may be taken into consideration.
Under no circumstances will the examination be considered as a memorial exercise but as a test of maturity and critical capacity on a subject, text and/or graphic or cartographic material.
Foreign students participating in the English Friendly program may take the exam in Spanish or English, at their choice.
Specifications for the second resit / retake exam:
Students will be required to take an exam in the subject. Foreign students participating in the English Friendly program may take the exam in Spanish or English, at their choice.
9. Assignments, course calendar and important dates
Not related to the syllabus/contents
Hours hours
Final test [PRESENCIAL][Assessment tests] 2

Unit 1 (de 3): CONCEPTS, OBJECTIVES, METHODS, AND SCALES OF TERRITORIAL ANALYSIS
Activities Hours
Class Attendance (theory) [PRESENCIAL][Lectures] 7
Workshops or seminars [PRESENCIAL][Case Studies] 2
Group tutoring sessions [PRESENCIAL][Guided or supervised work] 3
Class Attendance (practical) [PRESENCIAL][Practical or hands-on activities] 1
Writing of reports or projects [AUTÓNOMA][Self-study] 6
Scientific paper reading and review [AUTÓNOMA][Guided or supervised work] 3
Teaching period: Three weeks
Group 30:
Initial date: 31-01-2022 End date: 18-02-2022
Comment: Seminar on Development/Underdevelopment in relation to the concept of Sustainable Human Development. Paradigms and indicators.

Unit 2 (de 3): DEVELOPED REGIONS
Activities Hours
Class Attendance (theory) [PRESENCIAL][Lectures] 12
Workshops or seminars [PRESENCIAL][Case Studies] 2
Group tutoring sessions [PRESENCIAL][Guided or supervised work] 6
Class Attendance (practical) [PRESENCIAL][Practical or hands-on activities] 3
Writing of reports or projects [AUTÓNOMA][Self-study] 17
Scientific paper reading and review [AUTÓNOMA][Guided or supervised work] 6
Study and Exam Preparation [AUTÓNOMA][Self-study] 15
Teaching period: Six weeks
Group 30:
Initial date: 21-02-2022 End date: 01-04-2022
Comment: Seminar on the process of crisis and dissolution of the former USSR and its socio-economic and territorial consequences in terms of permanence/change in the current Confederation of Independent States.

Unit 3 (de 3): UNDERDEVELOPED REGIONS
Activities Hours
Class Attendance (theory) [PRESENCIAL][Lectures] 11
Workshops or seminars [PRESENCIAL][Case Studies] 2
Group tutoring sessions [PRESENCIAL][Guided or supervised work] 6
Class Attendance (practical) [PRESENCIAL][Practical or hands-on activities] 3
Writing of reports or projects [AUTÓNOMA][Self-study] 17
Scientific paper reading and review [AUTÓNOMA][Guided or supervised work] 6
Study and Exam Preparation [AUTÓNOMA][Self-study] 20
Teaching period: Six weeks
Group 30:
Initial date: 04-04-2022 End date: 15-05-2022
Comment: Seminar on the Middle East and geopolitical conflicts related to cultural diversity and the control of oil and water.

Global activity
Activities hours
General comments about the planning: Delivery of individual/group project on a region. If the project is finished before the deadline (week 15), it can be submitted for correction and scoring.
10. Bibliography and Sources
Author(s) Title Book/Journal Citv Publishing house ISBN Year Description Link Catálogo biblioteca
ALBET, A. La nueva geografía regional o la construcción social de la región Madrid Universidad Complutense 1993 https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=86378  
AZCARATE LUXÁN, Blanca, AZCÁRATE LUXÁN, Mª Victoria, y SÁNCHEZ SÁNCHEZ, José Grandes Regiones de la Tierra. Naturaleza y Sociedades Madrid UNED. Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia 978-84-362-7149-2 2016 Bibliografía básica  
BANCO MUNDIAL Índices e indicadores de desarrollo humano. Actualización estadística de 2018 Washington, DC World Bank 2018 http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2018_human_development_statistical_update_es.pdf  
BANCO MUNDIAL Development Goals in an Era of Demographic Change. Global Monitoring Report | 2015/2016 Washington, D.C. World Bank Group and the International Monetary Fund 978-1-4648-0669-8 2016 DOI: 10.1596/978-1-4648-0669-8 http://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/global-monitoring-report  
BANCO MUNDIAL World Development Indicators 2016 Washington, DC World Bank 978-1-4648-0683-4 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-1-4648-0683-4  
BERENTSEN, W.H. Europa contemporánea. Un análisis geográfico Barcelona Omega 84-282-1162-0 2000 Ficha de la biblioteca
BETHEMONT, Jacques Géographie de la Méditerranée. Du mythe unitaire à l'espace fragmenté Paris Armand Colin 978-2200354169 2008  
BLACK, Jeremy Mapas de guerra: cartografiando conflictos a través de los siglos Madrid. España Editorial Libsa 9788466237109 2019  
BREGOLAT, E. La segunda revolución china Barcelona Destino 978-84-233-3919-8 2007 Ficha de la biblioteca
BROSSAT, Ian Airbnb, la ciudad uberizada Pamplona. España Katakrak Luburuak 9788416946259 2019  
CALLIGÉ, L. De l'eau et de la paix : conflit et coopération israélo-palestiniens Paris L'Harmattan 978-2-296-06101-9 2008  
CARIOU, A. L¿Asie Centrale. Territoires, sociétés et environnement París. Francia Armand Colin Editeur 9782200601140 2016  
CATTAN, N. et al. Le système des villes européennes París Anthropos 2-7178-3898-8 1999  
CLAWSON, D.L. et al. World Regional Geography. A Development Approach New Jersey Prentice Hall 978-0131015326 2001  
CÓZAR ESCALANTE, José Manuel de El Antropoceno, tecnología, naturaleza y condición humana Madrid. España Los Libros de la Catarata 9788490976296 2019  
DALMAU, Eduard El porqué de los mapas Barcelona Debate 978-8418006173 2021  
DEBLONDE, J.-M. Géopolitique du conflit israélo-palestinien: les hommes, la terre et l'eau Paris Ellipses 978-2-7298-4269-7 2009  
DODDS, Klaus Geopolítica. Una breve introducción Barcelona Antoni Bosch Editor 978-8412106350 2021  
DREVET, Jean-François Histoire de la politique régionale de l¿Union européenne París Belin Editions 978-2-7011-4678-2 2008 Ficha de la biblioteca
FERGUSON, Y. H. y MANSBACH, R.W. Globalization: the return of borders to a borderless world? Routledge 978-0415521970 2012  
FOOT, R. y WALTER, A. China, the United States, and Global Order Cambridge University Press 978-0521725194 2011  
GARCÍA ALVARADO, J. M. y NAVARRO MADRID, A. Guerra, hambre, enfermedad y emigración: cuatro factores clave de la demografía africana actual Madrid Universidad Complutense 978-84-96702-18-9 2007 Gutiérrez Ronco, S. y Sanz Donaire, J.J. (coordinadores). pp. 279-306 Ficha de la biblioteca
GARCÍA CAMARERO, Julio Ciudadanos y 'ruralanos' Madrid. España Los Libros de la Catarata 9788490976555 2019  
GOEURY, D. y SIERRA, P. Introduction à l'analyse des territoires. concepts, outils, applications París Armand Colin Editeur 9782200293024 2016 Ficha de la biblioteca
GURRIARÁN, J. A. Armenios: el genocidio olvidado Madrid Espasa Calpe 978-84-670-2809-6 2008 Ficha de la biblioteca
GÓMEZ MENDOZA, J. Un mundo de regiones. Geografía Regional de geometría variable Madrid Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles 2001 Bibliografía básica http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=1122494  
HERRERO OLARTE, Susana Regionalismo abierto y nueva integración, ¿qué modelo genera más integración comercial en Sudamérica? Cuadernos geográficos de la Universidad de Granada, vol. 56 (2), pp. 94-110. Granada Universidad de Granada ISSN 0210-5462 2017 http://revistaseug.ugr.es/index.php/cuadgeo/article/view/5254  
KAPLAN, Robert D. La venganza de la geografía. Cómo los mapas condicionan el destino de las naciones Barcelona R.B.A. Libros S.A. 978-84-9056-003-7 2013  
LEWIS, G. Balfour and Weizmann: the Zionist, the zealot and the emergence of Israel Continuum 978-1847250407 2009  
LOIS-GONZÁLEZ, Rubén C., GARCÍA DELGADO, F. J., FELICIDADES GARCÍA, J., & DE LA ROSA MARTÍNEZ, M. Origen geográfico de los solicitantes de asilo y concesiones de Protección internacional en España entre 2008 y 2018 Revista Geográfica de América Central Heredia, Costa Rica 2021 Revista Geográfica de América Central, (66), 226-265. http://dx.doi.org/10.15359/rgac.66-1.9 https://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?pid=S2215-25632021000100226&script=sci_arttext  
LUENGO, F. La economía de los países del Este. Autarquía, desintegración e inserción en el mercado mundial Madrid Síntesis 978-8477387091 1999  
LÓPEZ-DAVADILLO LARREA, Julio y MARTÍN RODA, Eva Mª Geopolitica. claves para entender un mundo cambiante Madrid Editorial Universitaria Ramón Areces 978-84-99610887 2012  
MANZANO ITURA, Karen Isabel Representaciones geopolíticas: Chile y Argentina en campos de hielo sur ISSN-e 2395-9134 2016 file:///C:/Users/carmen.vazquez/Downloads/Dialnet-RepresentacionesGeopoliticas-5294032%20(4).pdf  
MARCU, Silvia Geopolítica de Rusia y Europa Oriental Madrid Síntesis 978-8413570655 2021  
MARCU, Silvia Geografías de la movilidad humana en el siglo XXI jóvenes de la Europa del Este en España Madrid. España Universidad Complutense de Madrid. (UCM) 9788466935760 2018  
MARSHALL, T. Prisoners of geography. Ten maps that tell you everything you need to know about global politics Londres Elliott & Thompson Limited 9781783961412 2015  
MARTÍN RUIZ, J. F. El nuevo orden geoeconómico mundial: la pobreza de África y sus factores Madrid Universidad Complutense 2007 http://revistas.ucm.es/index.php/AGUC/article/view/AGUC0707220077A/30887  
MÉNDEZ GUTIERREZ, R. y MOLINERO, F. Espacios y sociedades. Introducción a la geografía regional del mundo Barcelona Ariel 978-84-344-3457-8 2002 Bibliografía básica  
MÉNDEZ, Ricardo Sitiados por la pandemia. Del colapso a la reconstrucción: apuntes geográficos Madrid Revives 2020 http://revives.es/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/SITIADOS-POR-LA-PANDEMIA.pdf  
MÍAN, Marzio G. Ártico, la batalla por el Gran Norte Barcelona. España Editorial Ariel 9788434429512 2019  
NOGUÉ I FONT, J. y VICENTE, J. Geopolítica, identidad y globalización Barcelona Ariel 84-344-3471-7 2001 Bibliografía básica  
PALAZUELOS, E. y VARA, Mª J. Grandes áreas de la economía mundial Barcelona Ariel 978-8434421875 2002  
PNUD Human Development Report 2015. Work for Human Development New York United Nations Development Programme 978-92-1-126398-5 2015 http://www.undp.org/content/undp/es/home/librarypage/hdr/2015-human-development-report.html  
PNUD Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio. Informe de 2015 New York Naciones Unidas 2015 http://www.undp.org/content/undp/es/home/librarypage/mdg/the-millennium-development-goals-report-2015/  
ROWNTREE, L.; LEWIS, M.; PRICE, M. y WYCKOFF, W. Diversity amid Globalization. World Regions, Environment, Development New Jersey Prentice Hall 978-0321910066 2000  
ROY, O. Afghanistan: la difficile reconstruction d'un Etat Paris Institut d'Etudes de Sécurité 2004 http://www.iss.europa.eu/uploads/media/cp073.pdf  
SASSEN, Saskia Una sociología de la globalización Buenos Aires Katz 978-84-935432-6-6 2007  
SMITH, Stephen La huida hacia Europa. La joven África en marcha hacia el Viejo Continente Barcelona. España Arpa Editores 9788417623043 2019  
SOKOL, M. & PATACCINI, L. Winners and Losers in Coronavirus Times: Financialisation, Financial Chains and Emerging Economic Geographies of the COVID-19 Pandemic Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Dutch Geographical Society 2020 Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie Vol. 111, No. 3, pp. 401¿415 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/tesg.12433  
SÁNCHEZ MATEOS, Elvira El nuevo marco geopolítico de Oriente Medio Política y sociedad Madrid Universidad Complutense 2018 Política y sociedad, 55(3), 673-692. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Elvira-Sanchez-2/publication/329791443_El_nuevo_marco_geopolitico_de_Oriente_Medio/links/5ca64ade92851c64bd50a746/El-nuevo-marco-geopolitico-de-Oriente-Medio.pdf  
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