Guías Docentes Electrónicas
1. General information
Course:
ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM DESIGN STUDIO IV
Code:
11316
Type:
CORE COURSE
ECTS credits:
18
Degree:
378 - UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMME IN ARCHITECTURE
Academic year:
2022-23
Center:
606 - SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE OF TOLEDO
Group(s):
40 
Year:
3
Duration:
First quarter
Main language:
Spanish
Second language:
English
Use of additional languages:
English Friendly:
Y
Web site:
Bilingual:
N
Lecturer: CARLOS DEL CARMEN ASENSIO-WANDOSELL GARCIA - Group(s): 40 
Building/Office
Department
Phone number
Email
Office hours
Edif. 21/Despacho 1.22
DPTO. EN CONSTITUCIÓN
925268800 ext. 5357
carlos.awandosell@uclm.es

Lecturer: IGNACIO GONZALEZ-VARAS IBAÑEZ - Group(s): 40 
Building/Office
Department
Phone number
Email
Office hours
TOLETUM
DPTO. EN CONSTITUCIÓN
925268800 ext.5362
ignacio.gvaras@uclm.es

Lecturer: JUAN IGNACIO MERA GONZALEZ - Group(s): 40 
Building/Office
Department
Phone number
Email
Office hours
TOLETUM
DPTO. EN CONSTITUCIÓN
925268800 ext. 5357
juanignacio.mera@uclm.es

Lecturer: MARIA DEL CARMEN MOTA UTANDA - Group(s): 40 
Building/Office
Department
Phone number
Email
Office hours
Edificio 21/Escuela Politécnica
INGENIERÍA CIVIL Y DE LA EDIFICACIÓN
ext 4872/925268800
carmen.mota@uclm.es

2. Pre-Requisites
Not established
3. Justification in the curriculum, relation to other subjects and to the profession
Not established
4. Degree competences achieved in this course
Course competences
Code Description
E02 Adequate and applied knowledge of metric and projective geometry in architecture and urban planning
E06 Adequate knowledge applied to architecture and urban planning of spatial representation systems: the analysis and theory of form and the laws of visual perception
E07 Adequate knowledge applied to architecture and urban planning in all its phases, from the drawing of notes to scientific restitution.
E08 Adequate and applied knowledge in architecture and urban planning of the basics of topography, hypsometry and cartography and techniques of land modification
E09 Ability to apply graphic knowledge to the representation of spaces and objects
E10 Ability to conceive and represent the visual attributes of objects
E11 Ability to master proportion
E12 Ability to master drawing techniques
E13 Ability to master computer drawing techniques
E14 Ability to apply technical and constructive standards
E28 Applied knowledge of ecology, sustainability and the principles of conservation of energy and environmental resources
E32 Ability to conceive, calculate, design, integrate and implement foundation solutions in buildings and urban complexes
E34 Ability to conceive, calculate, design, integrate and execute in buildings and urban complexes enclosure systems, roofs and other heavy construction work.
E35 Ability to conceive, calculate, design, integrate and execute in buildings and urban complexes an interior partitioning system, carpentry, staircases and other finished works.
E36 Ability to conceive, calculate, design, integrate and execute in buildings and urban complexes Water supply, treatment and drainage systems
E37 Ability to design, calculate, design, integrate and implement heating and air-conditioning systems in buildings and district assemblies
E38 Ability to solve passive environmental conditioning
E39 Ability to solve thermal and acoustic conditioning, climate control
E40 Ability to solve energy efficiency and natural lighting problems
E43 Ability to design building and urban installations for electrical transformation and supply, from communication to audio-visual.
E44 Ability to design building and urban installations for acoustic conditioning and artificial lighting
E45 Ability to apply and exercise architectural criticism
E46 Ability to catalogue built and urban heritage and plan its protection
E47 Ability to implement planning regulations and ordinances
E48 Applied knowledge of general theories of form, composition and architectural types
E49 Applied knowledge of the general history of architecture
E50 Applied knowledge of the aesthetics and theory and history of fine and applied arts
E51 Applied knowledge of the relationship between cultural patterns and the architect's social responsibilities
E52 Applied knowledge of the basics of vernacular architecture
E53 Applied knowledge of the architectural, urban and landscape traditions of the urban and landscape traditions of Western culture, as well as their technical, climatic, economic, social and ideological foundations.
E54 Applied knowledge of feasibility analysis and the supervision and coordination of integrated projects
E55 Applied knowledge of ecology, sustainability and the principles of conservation of energy and environmental resources
E56 Applied knowledge of the methodological foundations of urban planning and spatial and metropolitan planning
E57 Applied knowledge of the mechanisms for drafting and managing urban plans at any scale
E58 Applied knowledge of urban sociology, theory, economics and history
E59 Applied knowledge of civil, administrative and urban planning regulations, building regulations, building regulations, building regulations, building regulations and industry regulations and professional performance regulations.
E60 Applied knowledge of feasibility analysis and the supervision and coordination of integrated projects
E61 Applied knowledge of real estate appraisal
E62 Applied knowledge of the study methods of symbolization processes, practical functions and ergonomics
E63 Applied knowledge of methods of studying social needs, quality of life, habitability and basic housing programmes
E64 Ability to develop functional building programmes
E65 Ability to develop functional programmes for urban spaces
E66 Skills in the practical design and development of basic and implementation projects, sketches and preliminary projects
E67 Skills for practical conception and development of urban projects
E68 Competence in the practical design and development of construction management
E69 Ability to intervene in and conserve, restore and rehabilitate built heritage
E70 Ability to remove architectural barriers
E71 Ability to solve passive environmental conditioning
E72 Ability to solve thermal and acoustic conditioning, climate control
E73 Ability to solve energy efficiency and natural lighting problems
E74 Ability to prepare environmental, landscape and environmental impact correction studies
E75 Ability to write security, evacuation and property protection projects
E76 Ability to write civil works projects
E77 Ability to design and execute urban layouts
E78 Ability to design and implement development projects
E79 Ability to design and execute landscape and gardening projects
G01 Capacity for analysis and synthesis
G02 Organizational and planning skills
G03 Information management capacity
G04 Problem solving
G05 Decision making
G06 Critical thinking
G07 Working in a team
G08 Working in an interdisciplinary team
G09 Working in an international context
G10 Interpersonal skills
G11 Recognition of diversity and multiculturalism
G12 Self-directed learning
G13 Adaptation to new situations
G14 Conflict management and negotiation
G15 Sensitivity to environmental issues
G16 Creativity
G17 Leadership
G18 Initiative and entrepreneurship
G19 Innovation
G20 Motivation for quality
G22 Mastery of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)
G23 Correct oral or written communication
G24 Ethical commitment and professional ethics
5. Objectives or Learning Outcomes
Course learning outcomes
Not established.
Additional outcomes
Description
6. Units / Contents
  • Unit 1:
    • Unit 1.1:
    • Unit 1.2:
    • Unit 1.3:
  • Unit 2:
    • Unit 2.1:
    • Unit 2.2:
    • Unit 2.3:
    • Unit 2.4:
    • Unit 2.5:
  • Unit 3:
    • Unit 3.1:
    • Unit 3.2:
    • Unit 3.3:
    • Unit 3.4:
    • Unit 3.5:
    • Unit 3.6:
    • Unit 3.7:
    • Unit 3.8:
    • Unit 3.9:
7. Activities, Units/Modules and Methodology
Training Activity Methodology Related Competences ECTS Hours As Com Description
Class Attendance (theory) [ON-SITE] Lectures E02 E06 E07 E08 E09 E10 E11 E12 E13 E14 E28 E46 E47 E48 E49 E50 E51 E52 E53 E58 E63 0.25 6.25 Y N
Class Attendance (practical) [ON-SITE] Projects based learning E02 E06 E07 E08 E09 E10 E11 E12 E13 E28 E38 E39 E40 E45 E46 E48 E49 E50 E51 E52 E55 E58 E63 E64 E65 E66 E67 E69 E70 E71 E72 E73 E74 E77 E78 G01 G02 G03 G04 G05 G06 G07 G08 G09 G10 G11 G12 G13 G14 G15 G16 G17 G18 G19 G20 G22 G24 2.65 66.25 Y N
Problem solving and/or case studies [ON-SITE] Projects based learning E02 E06 E07 E08 E09 E10 E11 E12 E13 E28 E38 E39 E40 E45 E48 E49 E50 E51 E52 E55 E63 E64 E66 E70 E71 E72 E73 E74 G01 G02 G03 G04 G05 G06 G07 G08 G09 G10 G11 G12 G13 G14 G15 G16 G17 G18 G19 G20 G22 G23 G24 0.7 17.5 Y N
Writing of reports or projects [OFF-SITE] Projects based learning E02 E06 E07 E09 E10 E11 E12 E13 E14 E38 E39 E40 E44 E46 E47 E48 E49 E52 E64 E66 G01 G02 G03 G04 G05 G06 G11 G12 G15 G16 G18 G19 G20 G22 G23 3.6 90 Y N
Writing of reports or projects [OFF-SITE] Group Work E02 E06 E07 E09 E10 E11 E12 E13 E14 E38 E39 E40 E44 E45 E48 E49 E50 E51 E55 E58 E64 E66 E70 G01 G02 G03 G04 G05 G07 G11 G12 G13 G14 G15 G16 G17 G18 G19 G20 G22 G23 1.8 45 Y N
Class Attendance (theory) [ON-SITE] Lectures E28 E51 E53 E70 E76 E78 E79 G01 G02 G03 G20 G24 0.28 7 N N
In-class Debates and forums [ON-SITE] Combination of methods E51 E53 E54 E55 E60 E63 E65 E66 E67 E68 E71 G01 G02 G03 G06 G07 G08 G09 G10 G11 G13 G14 G15 G17 G20 G24 0.4 10 Y N
Workshops or seminars [ON-SITE] Combination of methods E06 E07 E08 E09 E10 E11 E12 E13 E28 E51 E53 E70 E74 E76 E78 E79 G01 G02 G03 G04 G05 G06 G07 G10 G11 G13 G14 G15 G16 G17 G18 G19 G20 G22 G23 G24 1.02 25.5 Y N
Writing of reports or projects [OFF-SITE] Combination of methods E06 E07 E08 E09 E10 E11 E12 E13 E28 E49 E50 E51 E53 E54 E55 E60 E63 E65 E66 E67 E68 E70 E71 E74 E76 E78 E79 G01 G02 G03 G04 G05 G06 G07 G08 G10 G11 G12 G13 G14 G15 G16 G17 G18 G19 G20 G22 G23 G24 2.5 62.5 Y N
Analysis of articles and reviews [OFF-SITE] Reading and Analysis of Reviews and Articles E51 E53 G01 G02 G03 G11 G12 G15 G20 G23 0.2 5 Y N
Final test [ON-SITE] Assessment tests 0.1 2.5 Y Y
Class Attendance (theory) [ON-SITE] Lectures E45 E46 E48 E49 E50 E51 E52 E53 G01 G03 G06 G12 G23 1 25 N N
Writing of reports or projects [OFF-SITE] Combination of methods E45 E46 E48 E49 E50 E51 E52 E53 E69 G01 G02 G03 G04 G05 G06 G07 G08 G10 G11 G12 G13 G22 G23 G24 2.7 67.5 Y N
Workshops or seminars [ON-SITE] Combination of methods E45 E46 E48 E49 E50 E52 E53 G04 G06 G07 G11 G23 0.5 12.5 N N
Formative Assessment [ON-SITE] Combination of methods E45 E46 E48 E49 E50 E51 E52 E53 G01 G03 G06 G23 0.2 5 Y Y
Final test [ON-SITE] Assessment tests E45 E48 E49 E50 E51 E53 G01 G03 G23 0.1 2.5 Y Y
Total: 18 450
Total credits of in-class work: 7.2 Total class time hours: 180
Total credits of out of class work: 10.8 Total hours of out of class work: 270

As: Assessable training activity
Com: Training activity of compulsory overcoming (It will be essential to overcome both continuous and non-continuous assessment).

8. Evaluation criteria and Grading System
Evaluation System Continuous assessment Non-continuous evaluation * Description
Other methods of assessment 100.00% 100.00%
Total: 100.00% 100.00%  
According to art. 4 of the UCLM Student Evaluation Regulations, it must be provided to students who cannot regularly attend face-to-face training activities the passing of the subject, having the right (art. 12.2) to be globally graded, in 2 annual calls per subject , an ordinary and an extraordinary one (evaluating 100% of the competences).

Evaluation criteria for the final exam:
  • Continuous assessment:
    Evaluation criteria not defined
  • Non-continuous evaluation:
    Evaluation criteria not defined

Specifications for the resit/retake exam:
Evaluation criteria not defined
Specifications for the second resit / retake exam:
Evaluation criteria not defined
9. Assignments, course calendar and important dates
Not related to the syllabus/contents
Hours hours

Unit 1 (de 3):
Activities Hours
Class Attendance (theory) [PRESENCIAL][Lectures] 17.5
Class Attendance (practical) [PRESENCIAL][Projects based learning] 55
Problem solving and/or case studies [PRESENCIAL][Projects based learning] 17.5
Writing of reports or projects [AUTÓNOMA][Projects based learning] 90
Writing of reports or projects [AUTÓNOMA][Group Work] 45
Group 40:
Initial date: 07/09/2018 End date: 22/12/2018

Unit 2 (de 3):
Activities Hours
Class Attendance (theory) [PRESENCIAL][Lectures] 7
In-class Debates and forums [PRESENCIAL][Combination of methods] 7
Workshops or seminars [PRESENCIAL][Combination of methods] 28
Writing of reports or projects [AUTÓNOMA][Combination of methods] 60
Analysis of articles and reviews [AUTÓNOMA][Reading and Analysis of Reviews and Articles] 7.5
Final test [PRESENCIAL][Assessment tests] 3
Group 40:
Initial date: 07/09/2018 End date: 22/12/2018

Unit 3 (de 3):
Activities Hours
Class Attendance (theory) [PRESENCIAL][Lectures] 25
Writing of reports or projects [AUTÓNOMA][Combination of methods] 67.5
Workshops or seminars [PRESENCIAL][Combination of methods] 12.5
Formative Assessment [PRESENCIAL][Combination of methods] 5
Final test [PRESENCIAL][Assessment tests] 2.5
Group 40:
Initial date: 07/09/2018 End date: 22/12/2018

Global activity
Activities hours
10. Bibliography and Sources
Author(s) Title Book/Journal Citv Publishing house ISBN Year Description Link Catálogo biblioteca
Alvar Aalto : [Das gesamtwerk = L'oeuvre complète = The comp Birkhäuser Verlag 3-7643-5500-X (o.c.) 1995 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Le Corbusier et Pierre Jeanneret : oeuvre complète [en 8 vol Birkhäuser Publisher 978-3-7643-5515-9 (o 2006 P Ficha de la biblioteca
 
Aicher, Otl El mundo como proyecto Gustavo Gili 978-84-252-2028-9 2007 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Arnheim, R. La forma visual de la arquitectura Gustavo Gili 84-2521-827-6 2001 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Bachelard, Gaston La Poética del espacio Fondo de Cultura Económica 978-16-0923-8 2010 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Barasch, Moshe Teorías del arte : de Platón a Winckelmann Alianza Editorial 978-84-206-7108-6 2010 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Benevolo, Leonardo Historia de la arquitectura moderna Gustavo Gili 84-252-0797-5 1987 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Benévolo, Leonardo Diseño de la ciudad Gustavo Gili 8425210275 1981 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Blaser, Werner Mies van der Rohe : the art of structure = Die Kunst der Str Whitney Library of Design 0-8230-3064-4 1994 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Borja, Jordi El espacio público: ciudad y ciudadanía Electa Diputació de Barcelona 84-7794-904-2 (Diput 2003 U Ficha de la biblioteca
Ching, Francis D.K. La arquitectura : forma, espacio y orden Gustavo Gili 978-84-252-2344-0 2010 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Conrads, Ulrich Programas y manifiestos de la arquitectura del siglo XX Lumen 84-264-1101-0 1973 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Cullen, Gordon El paisaje urbano: tratado de estética urbanística Blume 84-7031-203-0 1974 U Ficha de la biblioteca
Curtis, William J. R. La arquitectura moderna desde 1900 Phaidon 978-0-7148-9850-6 2006 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Curtis, William J. R. Le Corbusier: Ideas y formas Madrid Blume 1997 P  
De Benedetti, M. y Pracchi, A Antologia dell¿architettura moderna. Testi, manifesti, utopie Bolonia Zanichelli 1988 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Delgado, Manuel1956- El espacio público como ideología Catarata 978-84-8319-595-6 2011 U Ficha de la biblioteca
Focillon, Henri La vida de las formas Xarait 84-85434-19-6 1983 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Frampton, Kenneth Historia crítica de la arquitectura moderna Gustavo Gili 978-252-84-2274-0 2009 C Ficha de la biblioteca
García Roig, José Manuel Elementos de análisis arquitectónico Universidad de Valladolid 1988 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Gehl, Jan & Svarre, Birgitte How to study public life Island Press 2013 U  
Gehl, Jan1936- Cities for people Island Press 978-1-59726-574-4 2010 U Ficha de la biblioteca
Giedion, Siegfried Espacio, tiempo y arquitectura : (el futuro de una nueva tra Dossat 84-237-0375-4 1982 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Gonzalez García, Angel Escritos de arte de vanguardia 1900/1945 Turner Fundación F. Orbegozo 84-85137-89-2 1979 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Hereu Payet, Pere Textos de arquitectura de la modernidad Nerea 84-86763-85-1 1999 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Holden, Robert Diseño del espacio público internacional Gustavo Gili 84-252-1703-2 1996 U Ficha de la biblioteca
Jacobs, Allan B. Grandes calles Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de 84-8102-119-9 1996 U Ficha de la biblioteca
Jacobs, Jane Muerte y vida de las grandes ciudades edicions 62Península 84-297-0863-4 1973 U Ficha de la biblioteca
Juli Esteban Noguera, La ordenación urbanística: conceptos, herramientas y prácticas Barcelona UPCPOSTGRAU 978-84-7653 2011 https://www.google.es/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0ahUKEwjFzrr49eLUAhWCJVAKHQYcAm4QFggoMAE&url=https%3A%2F%2Fupcommons.upc.edu%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F2099.3%2F36652%2F9788476537497.pdf&usg=AFQjCNG-AHCveopTg_yvL_2QJov945vE-A&cad=rja  
Kostof, Spiro Historia de la arquitectura Alianza Editorial 978-84-206-7996-9 2006 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Kruft, Hanno-Walter Historia de la teoría de la arquitectura Alianza 84-206-7996-8 (o.c.) 1990 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Le Corbusier (1887-1965) El espíritu nuevo en arquitectura : en defensa de la arquite Colegio Oficial de Aparejadores y Arquitectos T 84-500-8440-7 2005 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Le Corbusier (1887-1965) El modulor Poseidon 84-85083-03-2 (vol. 1980 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Le Corbusier (1887-1965) Hacia una arquitectura Apóstrofe 84-455-0174-7 1998 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Le Corbusier (1887-1965) Precisiones respecto a un estado actual de la arquitectura y Apóstrofe 84-455-0183-6 1999 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Lleó, B Sueño de habitar Barcelona Fundación Caja de Arquitectos 1998 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Loos, Adolf Ornamento y delito y otros escritos Gustavo Gili 84-252-0012-1 1980 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Lyall, Sutherland Landscape: diseño del espacio público : parques, plazas, jar Gustavo Gili 84-252-1494-7 1991 U Ficha de la biblioteca
MARTÍ ARÍS, C formas de residencia en la ciudad moderna: vivienda y ciudad en la Europa de entreguerras Ediciones UPC Universitat Politécnica de Catalu 2000 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Manchón, L. Felipe Recomendaciones para el proyecto y diseño del viario urbano Dirección General para la Vivienda, el Urbanismo y 84-498-0091-9 1995 U Ficha de la biblioteca
Marchán Fiz, Simón Las vanguardias históricas y sus sombras. Summa Artis Madrid Espasa 2001  
Maria Xalabarder Arlet LA PRÁCTICA DEL URBANISMO. Guía básica Políticas urbanas 978-84-7426-921-5 2007  
Martín Hernández, Manuel J. La Invención de la arquitectura Celeste 84-8211-091-8 1997 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig Escritos, diálogos y discursos Colegio Oficial de Aparejadores y Arquitectos T 84-500-5001-4 1981 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Monlús, J La ciudad dispersa : suburbanización y nuevas periferias Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona 84-88811-35-7 1998 U Ficha de la biblioteca
Montaner, Josep Maria As formas do século XX Gustavo Gili 84-252-1897-7 2002 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Montaner, Josep Maria Sistemas arquitectónicos contemporáneos Gustavo Gili 978-84-252-2190-3 2009 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Moughtin, Cliff Urban design: street and square Architectural Press 0-7506-5717-0 2003 U Ficha de la biblioteca
MÜLLER, W. y VOGEL, G Atlas de la arquitectura Alianza 1984 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Neufert, Ernst (1900-1986) Arte de proyectar en arquitectura : fundamentos, normas, pre Gustavo Gili 978-84-252-2167-5 2010 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Norberg-Schulz, Christian Los principios de la arquitectura moderna : sobre la nueva t Reverté 978-84-291-2107-0 2009 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Norberg-Schulz, Christian Intenciones en Arquitectura Gustavo Gili 978-84-252-1750-0 2008 P Ficha de la biblioteca
PATTETA, L Historia de la Arquitectura. Antología crítica Celeste 1997 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Paricio Ansuategui, Ignacio Vocabulario de arquitectura y construcción Bisagra 84-923125-6-4 2006 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Pevsner, Nikolaus Breve historia de la arquitectura europea Alianza Editorial 84-206-7126-6 1994 C Ficha de la biblioteca
Pevsner, Nikolaus Pioneros del diseño moderno : de William Morris a Walter Gro Infinito 987-9393-03-1 2003 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Piñón, Helio Curso básico de proyectos Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña 84-8301-256-1 1998 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Pérez Cambra, María del Mar Construcción sostenible de espacio público / Iniciativa Digital Politécnica, Oficina de Publica 978-84-9880-515-4 2015 U Ficha de la biblioteca
Rasmussen, Steen Eiler La Experiencia de la arquitectura : sobre la percepción de n Reverté 84-291-2105-6 2007 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Ronner, Heinz Louis Kahn / Complete Works 1935-74 Birkhäuser Publishers 1987 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Rossi, Aldo La arquitectura de la ciudad Gustavo Gili 978-84-252-1606-0 2007 U Ficha de la biblioteca
Rowe, Colin Ciudad collage Gustavo Gili 84-252-1047-X 1981 U Ficha de la biblioteca
Rudofsky, Bernard (1905-1988) Architecture without architects : a short introduction to no University of New Mexico 0-8263-1004-4 1987 P Ficha de la biblioteca
Sainz Gutiérrez, Victoriano El proyecto urbano en España : génesis y desarrollo de un ur Universidad de Sevilla 84-472-1015-4 2006 U Ficha de la biblioteca
Sica, Paolo (1935-) Historia del Urbanismo : el siglo XX Instituto de Estudios de Administración Local 84-7088-275-9 1981 U Ficha de la biblioteca
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Trachtenberg, M. y Hyman, I. Arquitectura de la Prehistoria a la Postmodernidad. La tradición occidental Madrid Akal 1990  
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Whyte, William, H. The social life of small urban spaces Project fo Public Spaces 1980 U  



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